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This page gives details of some reactions of phenol not covered elsewhere in this section. It deals with the combustion & esterification of phenol, and the use of iron(III) chloride solution (ferric chloride solution) as a thử nghiệm for phenol.
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Making esters from phenol using an acyl chloride
A typical acyl chloride is ethanoyl chloride, CH3COCl. Phenol reacts with ethanoyl chloride at room temperature, although the reaction isn"t as fast as the one between ethanoyl chloride & an alcohol. Phenyl ethanoate is formed together with hydrogen chloride gas.
Sometimes it is necessary to modify the phenol first khổng lồ make the reaction faster.
For example, benzoyl chloride has the formula C6H5COCl. The -COCl group is attached directly to a benzene ring. It is much less reactive than simple acyl chlorides like ethanoyl chloride. In order khổng lồ get a reasonably quick reaction with benzoyl chloride, the phenol is first converted into sodium phenoxide by dissolving it in sodium hydroxide solution.
The phenoxide ion reacts more rapidly with benzoyl chloride than the original phenol does, but even so you have lớn shake it with benzoyl chloride for about 15 minutes. Solid phenyl benzoate is formed.
Making esters from phenol using an acid anhydride
A typical acid anhydride is ethanoic anhydride, (CH3CO)2O. The reactions of acid anhydrides are slower than the corresponding reactions with acyl chlorides, and you usually need to lớn warm the mixture. Again, you can react the phenol with sodium hydroxide solution first, producing the more reactive phenoxide ion. If you simply use phenol and ethanoic anhydride, phenyl ethanoate is formed together with ethanoic acid.
This reaction isn"t important itself, but a very similar reaction is involved in the manufacture of aspirin (covered in detail on another page - liên kết below).
If the phenol is first converted into sodium phenoxide by adding sodium hydroxide solution, the reaction is faster. Phenyl ethanoate is again formed, but this time the other hàng hóa is sodium ethanoate rather than ethanoic acid.