dragon throne

From Wikipedia, the không tính tiền encyclopedia

In Chinese history, the Dragon Throne of the Emperor of Trung Quốc (pictured here in the Palace of Heavenly Purity) was erected at the center of the Forbidden City, which was itself regarded as the centre of the world. The series of gates and passages a visitor had to tát pass through before reaching the emperor was intended to tát inspire awe.

The Dragon Throne (simplified Chinese: 龙椅; traditional Chinese: 龍椅; pinyin: lóng yǐ) was the throne of the Emperor of Trung Quốc. As the dragon was the emblem of divine imperial power, the throne of the Emperor was known as the Dragon Throne.[1] The term can refer to tát very specific seating, as in the special seating in various structures in the Forbidden City of Beijing or in the palaces of the Old Summer Palace. Metonymically, "the Dragon Throne" can also refer to tát the Chinese sovereign and to tát the Chinese monarchy itself.[2] The Daoguang Emperor is said to tát have referred to tát his throne as "the divine utensil."

Bạn đang xem: dragon throne

"My sacred and indulgent father had, in the year that he began to tát rule alone, silently settled that the divine utensil (the throne) should devolve on my contemptible person. I, knowing the feebleness of my virtue, at first felt much afraid I should not be competent to tát the office; but on reflecting that the sages, my ancestors, have left to tát posterity their plans; that his late majesty has laid the duty on má -— and heaven's throne should not be long vacant -— I have done violence to tát my feelings, and forced myself to tát intermit awhile my heartfelt grief, that I may with reverence obey the unalterable decree and on the 27th of the 8th moon (October 3rd), I purpose devoutly to tát announce the sự kiện to tát heaven, to tát earth, to tát my ancestors, and to tát the gods of the land and of the grain, and shall then sit down on the imperial throne."[3]

The Chinese characters above the throne read "Zheng Da Guang Ming", which can be "translated in various ways" including "Fair-dealing and Upright" or "Just and Honorable".[4]

Seat of State[edit]

The dragon was the symbol on the imperial flag and other imperial objects, including the throne or imperial utensil.[5] The dragon was said to tát have the power to tát become visible or invisible—in short, the dragon was a factotum in the "divinity business" of the Chinese emperors. The dragon was the crest on royal monuments. The dragon was displayed on the Emperor's robes. The Grand Chair of State was called the "Dragon Throne."[6]

The term can be used to tát refer to tát a very specific Seat of State in the Hall of Supreme Harmony (also known as the "Hall of Highest Peace"). This is a uniquely crafted object which was used only by the Emperor.[7]

When European and American military forces pushed their way into the Peking after the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, they were the first men from the West to tát appear in the presence of the Dragon Throne since Isaac Titsingh and Andreas Everardus cầu xin Braam Houckgeest were received with grace and ceremony by the Qianlong Emperor in 1795.[8] William Elliot Griffis was among those who did actually stand with cameras and notebooks before the Dragon Throne on a sunny September day in 1900; and he described what he saw:

Xem thêm: samsung s6s gia bao nhieu

There was the throne itself, a great three-leaved affair. Over the ample seat in the centre, with a high reredos, two great wings spread off from the central division. All was white marble and jade, liberally sculptured according to tát the canons of Chinese art. Along the top rung rinh and leered dragons, each one "swinging the scaly horror of his folded tail" toward the central seat, his head projecting outward in the air. Below the throne were the three steps, on the broad second one of which the suppliant performed the nine prostrations or knocks of the head.[9]

History[edit]

In Imperial Trung Quốc, the seat of power was called the Dragon's Seat or the Dragon Throne.[10] The process of accession, the ceremonies of enthronement and the act being seated on the Dragon's Throne were roughly interchangeable.[11]

The Dragon Throne was an hereditary monarchy in Trung Quốc before 1912. In much the same sense as the British Crown, the Dragon Throne became an abstract metonymic concept which represented the monarch and the legal authority for the existence of the government.

According to tát tradition, the Chinese Empire began with the Qin dynasty in 221 BC; and the chronology of the emperors continued in unbroken succession until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.

Xem thêm: độc quyền yêu em

For a short time in 1917, to tát whatever extent the Chinese emperor was held to tát be as symbol of the state and its people, the Dragon Throne would have been construed as a symbol of a constitutional monarch.

Rhetorical usage[edit]

This flexible English term is also a rhetorical trope. Depending on context, the Dragon Throne can be construed as a metonymy, which is a rhetorical device for an allusion relying on proximity or correspondence, as for example referring to tát actions of the Emperor or as "actions of the Dragon Throne."

The Dragon Throne is also understood as a synecdoche, which is related to tát metonymy and metaphor in suggesting a play on words by identifying a closely related conceptualization, e.g.,

  • referring to tát a part with the name of the whole, such as "Dragon Throne" for the mystic process of transferring Imperial authority, e.g.,
In 1368, "[o]ne of the Hongwu Emperor's first acts upon ascending the Dragon Throne was to tát mix up a network to tát spy on his subordinates and to tát register the entire population of Trung Quốc for the first time."[12]
  • referring to tát the general with the specific, such as "Dragon Throne" for emperorship (or the supreme autocrat of China) or Imperial Trung Quốc itself, e.g.,
In 1418, "[t]he fleet moored just outside Malindi's coral reefs (off the east coast of what is today known as Kenya). From the belly of the big ships came small rowboats and men in lavish silk robes. And among the faces were some the king recognized. These men he knew. They were his own ambassadors whom he had dispatched months ago on a tribute-bearing mission. Now emissaries of the Dragon Throne were returning them trang chính, and they brought wondrous things to tát trade. But had so sánh many men and so sánh many ships come in peace or had they come to tát make the citizens of Malindi subjects of the Son of Heaven?"[13]
  • referring to tát the specific with the general, such as "Dragon Throne" for the long reign of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1736–1795) or equally as well for the ambit of the Imperial system, e.g.,
In 1921, "... the movement for the restoration of the Throne will eventually have the hearty approval of the vast majority of the people. They will welcome it, not only because the Dragon Throne has been for ages an essential part of the Confucian system, inseparable from the ideas of an agricultural race born and bred on patriarchal Theism, but also because of the callous corruption and disorder with which the present administration has been identified all over the country.[14]

See also[edit]

  • Chinese sovereign
  • Divine right of kings
  • Emperor of China
  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Monarchy of China
  • National emblem
    • Throne of England and the Kings of England
    • Chrysanthemum Throne of the Emperors of Japan
    • Phoenix Throne of the Kings of Korea
    • Lion Throne of the Dalai Lama of Tibet
    • Lion Throne of Burma
    • Peacock Throne of the Mughal Empire
    • Peacock Throne of the Persian Empire
    • Sun Throne of the Persian Empire
    • Naderi Throne in Iran
  • List of Chinese monarchs
  • The Last Emperor

Notes[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ..., by Samuel Wells Williams, a publication from 1848, now in the public tên miền in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Commercial Handbook of China, by Arnold, Julean Herbert, a publication from 1920, now in the public tên miền in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The preceptor's assistant, or, Miscellaneous questions in general history, literature, and science, by Williams, David, a publication from 1858, now in the public tên miền in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from China Through the Stereoscope: A Journey Through the Dragon Empire at the Time of the Boxer Uprising, by Ricalton, James, a publication from 1901, now in the public tên miền in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from In the Mikado's Service: A Story of Two Battle Summers in China, by Griffis, William Elliot, a publication from 1901, now in the public tên miền in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from China's Story in Myth, Legend, Art and Annals, by Griffis, William Elliot, a publication from 1911, now in the public tên miền in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from China, nhật bản and Korea, by Bland, John, a publication from 1921, now in the public tên miền in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Asiatic journal and monthly miscellany, Volume 13, by East India Company, a publication from 1822, now in the public tên miền in the United States.
  1. ^ Arnold, Julean Herbert. (1920). Commercial Handbook of Trung Quốc, p. 446.
  2. ^ Williams, David. (1858). The preceptor's assistant, or, Miscellaneous questions in general history, literature, and science, p. 153.
  3. ^ Williams, Samuel Wells. (1848). The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the ... Chinese Empire and Its Inhabitants, p. 312.
  4. ^ Guangwei, He; Hualing, Tong; Wenzhen, Yang; Zhenguo, Chang; Zeru, Li; Ruicheng, Dong; Weijan, Gong, eds. (1999). Spectacular China. Translated by Wusun, Lin; Zhongping, Wu. Cologne: Könemann. p. 62. ISBN 9783829010771.
  5. ^ "A Chineze Puzzle." New York Times. April 6, 1875.
  6. ^ Ricalton, James. (1901). China Through the Stereoscope: A Journey Through the Dragon Empire at the Time of the Boxer Uprising, p. 103.
  7. ^ Ricalton, p. 308.
  8. ^ Ricalton, p. 309.
  9. ^ Griffis, William Elliot. (1901). In the Mikado's Service: A Story of Two Battle Summers in Trung Quốc, p. 358.
  10. ^ Griffis, William Elliot. (1911). China's Story in Myth, Legend, Art and Annals, p. 57.
  11. ^ "Chinese Coronation: Coronation of Taou-Kwang, the new Emperor of Trung Quốc," pp. 332-335 in The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany.] (East India Company). Vol. 13 (1822 January–June).
  12. ^ Levathes, Louise. (1996). When Trung Quốc Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405-1433, p. 59; see also Williams, Samuel Wells. (1848). The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Chinese Empire and Its Inhabitants, p. 313-314.
  13. ^ Levathes, p. 19; cf. p.
  14. ^ Bland, John. (1921). China, nhật bản and Korea, p. 299.

References[edit]

  • Arnold, Julean Herbert. (1920). Commercial Handbook of Trung Quốc. Washington, D.C.: United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce; Government Printing Office. OCLC 3882862
  • Bland, John Otway Percy. (1921). China, nhật bản and Korea. New York: W. Heinemann. OCLC 252248839
  • "Chinese Coronation: Coronation of Taou-Kwang, the new Emperor of Trung Quốc," The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany. (East India Company). London: William H. Allen & Co. Vol. 13 (1822 January–June), pp. 332–335.
  • Griffis, William Elliot. (1911). China's Story in Myth, Legend, Art and Annals. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. OCLC 850353
  • William Elliot Griffis. (1901). In the Mikado's Service: A Story of Two Battle Summers in Trung Quốc. Boston: W.A. Wilde Co. OCLC 4591145
  • Levathes, Louise. (1996). When Trung Quốc Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405-1433. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-511207-8
  • Ricalton, James. (1901). China Through the Stereoscope: A Journey Through the Dragon Empire at the Time of the Boxer Uprising. New York: Underwood & Underwood. OCLC 5871769
  • Williams, Samuel Wells. (1848). The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the ... Chinese Empire and Its Inhabitants. New York: Wiley & Putnam. OCLC 2276049